Chapter 12 - TENSES

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Definisi: Verb form that shows the time of the event (Bentuk kata kerja yang menunjukkan waktu terjadinya suatu peristiwa).
Contoh:
Sarah brings a flower (simple present)
Sarah brought a flower (simple past)
Sarah will bring a flower (simple future)
Sarah has brought a flower (present perfect).
***
Komponen Tenses ada dua, yakni TIME dan EVENT
Time
Event
Present (sekarang)
Past (lampau)
Future (akan datang)
Past Future (rencana yang gagal/khayalan)
Simple (kebiasaan)
Continuous (sedang)
Perfect (selesai)
Perfect Continuous (masih berlangsung)

PEMBAGIAN TENSES BERDASARKAN WAKTU
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Past
(Real Time)
Present
(Real Time)
Future
(Real Time)
Past Future
(Unreal Time)
Simple Past (S.Ps):
S (Subject) + V2
(I studied)
Simple Present (S. Pr):
S + V1 (I study)
Simple Future (SF):
S + will + V1
Simple Past Future (S. Ps. F):
S + would + V1
Past Continuous (Ps. Cont):
S + was + V-ing
Present Continuous (Pr. Cont):
S + be (is, am, are) + V-ing
Future Continuos (F. Cont):
S + will + be + V-ing
Past Future Continuous (Ps. F. Cont):
S + would + be + V-ing
Past Perfect (Ps. Pf):
S + had + V3
Present Perfect (Pr. Pf):
S + have/has + V3
Future Perfect (F. Pf):
S + will + have + V3
Past Future Perfect (Ps. F. Pf):
S + would + have
Past Perfect Continuous (Ps. PF. Cont):
S + had + been + V-ing
Present Perfect Continuos (Pr. Pf. Cont):
S + have/has + been + V-ing
Future Perfect Continuous (F. Pf. Cont):
S + will + have + been + V-ing
Past Future Perfect Continuous (Ps F. Pf. Cont):
S + would + have + been + V-ing

Konsep Dasar Tenses:
1. Simple (s)
2. Present (Pr) V1 atau V1 + s/es untuk subyek He, She dan It)
3. Past (Ps) V2
4. Continuous (cont) be + V-ing
5. Future (F) will + V1 / shall + V1
6. Perfect (Pf) have + V3
7. Nominal (n) be + Subjective Complement

Baca Juga: Cara Memahami Tenses dengan Melihat Tanda Waktunya

V1
V2
V3
V + s/es
Be
Was/were
Been
Is, am, are
Have/has
Had
Had
Has
Will/shall
Would/should
-
-

RUMUS PERKAWINAN TENSES

Misalnya, kita ingin membuat kalimat dengan model Past Future Perfect Continuous (Ps. F. Pf. Cont). Maka, mengacu pada pembahasan di atas, cara penggabungannya menjadi seperti ini:
Ps
F
Pf
Cont
V2
Will/shall
Have + V3
Be + V-ing
S + would have been + V-ing
I + would have been + studying

Penjelasan lebih lanjut tentang Perfect Tense, klik DI SINI

SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT
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Subject
S. Pr
Pr. Cont
Pr. Pf
S. Ps
Ps. Cont
Ps. Pf
Future (UK)
Future (US)
Ps. F (UK)
Ps. F (US)
I
Do
Am
Have
Did
Was
Had
Shall
Will
Should
Would
You
Do
Are
Have
Did
Were
Had
Will
Will
Would
Would
We
Do
Are
Have
Did
Were
Had
Shall
Will
Should
Would
They
Do
Are
Have
Did
Were
Had
Will
Will
Would
Would
He
Does
Is
Has
Did
Was
Had
Will
Will
Would
Would
She
Does
Is
Has
Did
Was
Had
Will
Will
Would
Would
It
Does
Is
Has
Did
Was
Had
Will
Will
Would
Would

Cara Membuat Kalimat NEGATIVE (-), INTROGATIVE (?) dan NEGATIVE-INTROGATIVE (-?):
1. Kalimat negatif (-)
Tambahkan “not” setelah auxiliary yang pertama.
Pola:
(+) S + V-Aux + V-ord + Object
(-) S + V-Aux + not + V-ord + Object
E.g:
(+) You are looking at them.
(-) You are not looking at them.

2. Kalimat introgatif (?)
Letakkan auxiliary yang pertama di depan kalimat, dan tambahkan tanda tanya (?) di akhir kalimat.
Pola:
(+) S + V-Aux + V-ord + Object
(?) V-aux + S + V-ord + Object
E.g:
(+) You are looking at them.
(?) Are you looking at them?

3. Kalimat Negatif-Introgatif (-?)
Letakkan aux yang pertama di depan kalimat, serta tambahkan “not” sebelum atau setelah subyek dan tambahkan tanda tanya di akhir kalimat.
Pola:
(+) S + V-Aux + V-ord + Object.
(-?) V-aux + S + not + V-ord + O?
atau
(-?) V-aux + not + S + V-ord + O?
E.g:
(+) You are looking at them.
(-?) Are you not looking at them?
atau
(-?) Are not you looking at them?

NOTE:
Bila tenses S. Pr dan S. Ps, kalimatnya verbal, maka Verb auxiliarynya menggunakan do, does atau did.
Contoh:
(+) You understand about this lesson. (S. Pr)
(-) You do not understand about this lesson.
(?) Do you understand about this lesson?

Another Example:
(+) You understood about this lesson. (S. Ps)
(-) You did not understand about this lesson.
(?) Did you understand about this lesson?

CONTRACTION BETWEEN VERB AUXILIARY and NOT:
1. Be + not à
am (am not)
is (is’t)
are (aren’t)
was (wasn’t)
were (weren’t)

2. Do + not à
do (don’t)
does (doesn’t)
did (didn’t)

3. Have + not à
have (haven’t)
has (hasn’t)
had (hadn’t)
will (won’t)
would (wouldn’t)
shall (shan’t)
should (shouldn’t)
can (can’t)
could (couldn’t)
must (musn’t)
need (needn’t)

This is the end of Chapter 12
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