Chapter 14: Time and Functions of Tenses

Sumber Gambar dari Sini

Cara mendeteksi dan membedakan jenis tenses juga bisa dilihat dari tanda waktunya (time signal) dan fungsinya.

Berikut ini tabel Time Signal and Function For Six Tenses yang diharapkan bisa membuat kita semua bisa memahami tenses tanpa rumit.

Tenses
Time Signal
Function of Tenses
Simple Present
Adverb of Frequency:
Usually
Always
Often
Seldom
Never

Every + time (setiap)
Every day
Every week
Every month
Etc.

On + day “Plural” (setiap)
On Sundays
On Mondays
Etc.
Verbal Form:
(+) S + V1 + s/es
(-) S + do/does + not + V1 …  
(?) Do/does + S + V1 … ?

Nominal Form:
(+) S + is/am/are + subjective complement
(-) S + is/am/are + not + subjective complement
(?) is/am/are + S + subjective complement?

Function:
Habitual Action (Kebiasaan Sehari-Hari)
e.g: He always swims in the river.
General Truth (Kebenaran Umum)
e.g. The Earth is around.
Headline News (Judul Berita)
e.g. The Floods Attacks Jakarta.
Imperative (Kalimat Perintah)
e.g. Answers the questions well!
Ability (Kemampuan)
e.g. Michael speaks English fluently.
Future Time/Time Table (waktu yang sudah menjadi kesepakatan/terjadwal)
e.g. Our class begin at 07.00 tomorrow.
Non Progressive Verb
e.g. Everyone always hates this so much.
Note: Verb yang bermakna keadaan tidak boleh di-continuous-kan.
Simple Past
General Time Signal in Past
Yesterday
The day before yesterday
In 1998
Etc.

Adverb of Frequency
Usually
Always
Often
Seldom
Never

Last + time (… lalu)
Last week

Time + ago (… lalu)
Two days ago.
Verbal Form:
(+) S + V2 …
(-) S + did + not + V1 …  
(?) Did + S + V1 … ?

Nominal Form:
(+) S + was/were + subjective complement
(-) S + was/were + not + subjective complement
(?) Was/were + S + subjective complement?

Function:
Habitual Action in The Past
e.g. He always got up early in the morning three years ago.
General Truth in The Past
e.g. Soeharto was our president.
Single Action in The Past (Sifatnya Kebetulan, Tanpa Disengaja)
e.g. You borrowed my pen yesterday.

Simple Future
General Time Signal in Future
Tomorrow
The day after tomorrow
in 2050

Adverb of Frequency:
Usually
Always
Often
Seldom
Never

Next + time (… akan datang)
Next week
Next month
(Time) + later (… akan datang)
Two days later
Three weeks later
Verbal Form:
(+) S + will/shall + V1…
(-) S + will/shall + not + V1 …  
(?) Will/Shall + S + V1 … ?

Nominal Form:
(+) S + will/shall + be + subjective complement
(-) S + will/shall + not + be + subjective complement
(?) Will/shall + S + be + subjective complement?

Function of Simple Future:
Habitual Action in The Future
e.g. Everybody will die.
Spontaneitely “will” (Rencana Spontan)
e.g. He will open the door.
Prior Plan “Be Going To” (Rencana Matang)
e.g. We are going to have a party next week.
Prediction “Will Be/Going To” (Perkiraan)
e.g. She will come here tonight (belum pasti)
She is going to come here tonight. (sudah pasti)

Present Continuous
Spesific Time Signal in Present
Now
Today
Right now
At present
At the moment

This + (time)
This week
This month

Imperative Sentence (interjection)
Look out!
Listen!
Etc.
Verbal Form:
(+) S + is/am/are + V-ing …
(-) S + is/am/are + not + V-ing …  
(?) is/am/are + S + V-ing … ?

Nominal Form:
Tidak ada bentuk continuous-nya.

Function:
Menyatakan kejadian yang telah berlangsung saat berbicara.
e.g. Hurry up! We are waiting for you!
Menyatakan kejadian yang sedang dalam proses.
e.g. I am writing the second book this year.
Menyatakan kejengkelan “Always/forever”
e.g. They are always ignoring me.
Menyatakan Future Time (Prior Plan)
e.g. We are playing football next sunday.
Menyatakan kejadian yang berangsur-angsur berubah.
e.g. Today is getting darker.

Note:
Be-Ving: rencana yang sudah mantap jauh-jauh hari.
Will: rencana spontan.
Past Continuous
Specific Time Signal in Past
Yesterday morning
At the same time yesterday
Last night
At 08.30
Etc
Verbal Form:
(+) S + was/were + V-ing …
(-) S + was/were + not + V-ing …  
(?) Was/were + S + V-ing … ?

Nominal Form:
Tidak ada bentuk continuous-nya.

Function:
Menyatakan kejadian yang sedang berlangsung di masa lampau.
e.g. He was calling me yesterday afternoon.
Menyatakan kejadian yang berangsur-angsur berubah di masa lampau.
e.g. The wind was blowing harder last night.
Future Continuous
Specific Time Signal in Future
Tomorrow morning
At the same time tomorrow
Tonight at 8.30
etc
Verbal Form:
(+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing …
(-) S + will/shall + not + be + V-ing …  
(?) Will/shall + S + be + V-ing … ?

Nominal Form:
Tidak ada bentuk continuous-nya.

Function:
Menyatakan kejadian yang sedang berlangsung in the future.
e.g. She will be going to market next week on Sunday.
I will be writing a book tomorrow morning.
***
TENSES BASED ON ITS TERM OF TENSES
1. NON-CONTINUOUS
Pola: Tidak berpola be + V-ing
Time: General time signal
Term: long term
e.g. I study English everyday.
2. CONTINUOUS
Pola: Berpola be + V-ing
Time: Spesific time signal
Term: short term
e.g. I am studying English right now.


POLA KERJA SAMA ANTARA CONTINUOUS DAN NON CONTINUOUS
Sumber Gambar dari Sini

Polanya sama untuk kalimat nominal dan kalimat dengan non progressive verb.
Note: Kalimat nominal dan kalimat yang menggunakan non-progressive verb tidak bisa di-continuous-kan. Sehingga pola continuous dengan non-continuous itu sama.
Contoh:
Dia di sini setiap hari (simple present) à She is here every day.
Dia di sini sekarang (Present continuous) à She is here now.

Another Exampls:
Jenifer membayangkanku setiap hari (simple present) à Jenifer imagines me every day.
Jenifer membayangkanku sekarang (Present continuous) à Jenifer imagines me right now.
I hate you everyday. (simple present)
I hate you now. (present continuous)
Fitri understands the lessons every day (simple present)
Fitri understand the lesson right now (present continuous)

This is the end of Chapter 14

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