Chapter 15: TIME AND FUNCTION OF PERFECT

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Pola Perfect Tense:
- Present Perfect: S + have/has + V3
- Past Perfect: S + had + V3
- Future Perfect: S + will + have + V3

SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
Subject
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
I
Have
Had
You
Have
Had
We
Have
Had
They
Have
Had
Benda jamak
Have
Had
He
Has
Had
She
Has
Had
It
Has
Had

Example:
(+) I have eaten. (saya sudah makan)
(-) I have not eaten.
(?) Have I eaten?
(?) Have I not eaten?

MAKNA:
(+) sudah à Indah has eaten stone. (Indah sudah makan batu)
(-) belum à Indah has not eaten rice (Indah belum makan nasi)
(?) Belumkah? à Has Munir said love to Pipik?
atau
Hasn’t Munir said love to Pipik?

Another Example:
Laudia sudah makan, tapi dia belum kenyang à Laudia has eaten but she has not been full.
Janifer sudah mandi tapi dia belum cantik à Janifer has taken a bath but she has not been pretty.

TIME SIGNAL OF PERFECT TENSE
1. Already (sudah), digunakan pada kalimat positifm letaknya di awal (initial), tengah (middle) dan akhir (final) kalimat. Contoh:
Already, I have been here.
I have already been here.
I have been here already.
2. Just (baru saja), digunakan pada kalimat positif. Posisinya hanya di middle. Contoh:
I have just playing football.
I have just been here.
3. Not … Yet (belum hingga saat ini).
Pola Variasi Not … Yet:
S + have/has + not + V3 + yet à I have not eaten yet (Present Perfect)
S + have/has + yet + to infinitive à I have yet to eat (simple present)
S + do/does + not + V1 + yet à I do not eat yet (simple present)
S + did + not + V1 + yet à I did not eat yet (simple past)
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4. Adverb of Frequency, di antaranya:
Always
Never
Usually
Seldom
Often
Posisinya di middle (tengah kalimat).
Contoh:
Pipik has always slept on the street.
Fitri has never seen a car before.
5. Adverb yang menyatakan durasi waktu, di antaranya:
until now
up to now
up to present
so far
recently
lately
all + time
all day
all year
(my) life

Baca Juga: Function of Perfect

6. Time duration, di antaranya:
Since: sejak (the beginning of time)
For: selama (the period of time)
Note:
Since à Conjunction: Present Perfect + since + subject + V2/Simple past
Since à Preposition: Since + object of preposition

Contoh:
Marcel sudah mengajar di Pare sejak ayahnya pergi ke London.
(Marcel has taught in Pare since his father went to London.)
Marcel sudah mengajar di pare sejak 1998.
(Marcel has taught in Pare since 1998.)

Penjelasan awal soal Tenses, klik DI SINI

This is The End of Chapter 15

Note: Untuk melihat STEP BY STEP ENGLISH secara keseluruhan, Sumber Referensi dan Prolog, KLIK DI SINI



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