CHAPTER 16: FUNCTION OF PERFECT

Sumber Gambar dari Sini

Perfect selalu memiliki dua fungsi:
1. Selesai. Cirinya, tidak terdapat durasi waktu. Contoh:
Saya sudah tinggal di Pare (selesai)
I have stayed in Pare.
2. Masih berlangsung. Cirinya, terdapat durasi waktu, contoh:
Saya masih tinggal di Pare selama dua tahun (masih berlangsung).
I have stayed in Pare fot two years.

POLA DAN FUNGSI PERFECT

1. PRESENT PERFECT
Verbal Form:
(+) S + have/has + V3
(-) S + have/has + not + v3
(?) have/has + S + V3 … ?
Nominal Form:
(+) S + have/has + been + subjective complement
(-) S + have/has + not + been + subjective complement
(?) have/has + S + been + subjective complement?

Function:
a. Menyatakan kejadian yang sudah selesai. Ciri-cirinya:
- Time signal Already, Just, not … yet … etc.
- Tidak terdapat adverb yang menyatakan “duration” dan “time duration” semisal until now, up to now, since, for, etc.
Contoh: She has just worked in New York Bank.

b. Menyatakan kejadian yang masih berlangsung.  Ciri-cirinya:
- Terdapat adverb yang menyatakan “duration” dan “time duration” yakni until now, up to now, since, for, etc.
- Menggunakan long term verbs (live, stay, work, etc).
Contoh: She has worked in New York Bank for 3 years.

c. Menyatakan kejadian yang belum terjadi (negative).
Contoh: They haven’t collected their assignment yet.

d. Menyatakan kejadian yang berulang-ulang (biasanya terdapat adverb of multiplier).
Contoh: He has eaten rich thrice already.

e. Menyatakan experience.
Contoh: They have ever gone to Borobudur Temple.

***

2. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
Verbal Form:
(+) S + have/has + been + V-ing
(-) S + have/has + not + been + V-ing
(?) have/has + S + been + V-ing … ?

Nominal Form:
Tidak ada bentuk nominal dari Present Perfect Continuous.

Time Signal:
- Adverb yang menyatakan duratiom (until now, up to now, all my life, etc)
- Time duration (since dan for)

Function:
- Menyatakan kejadian yang masih berlangsung. Ciri-cirinya, ada adverb yang menyatakan durasi/time diration dan short time verbs.
Contoh: He has been sleeping for two hours.

Perbedaan Simple Past dan Present Perfect:
Simple Past
Present Perfect
Pola: S + V2
Time signal: definite time signal (yesterday, two days ago, last week etc.)
Orientasi: TIME
Contoh: Rusdi met his girlfriend yesterday.
Pola: S + have/has + V3
Time signal: indefinite time signal (already, just, not yet, etc)
Orientasi: EFFECT
Contoh: Rusdi has met his girlfriend.

Perbedaan Present Perfect, Present Continuous dan Present Perfect Continuous:
Present Perfect
Present Continuous
Present Perfect Continuous
Pola: S + have/has + V3
Time signal: time duration (verb-nya berdurasi lama, seperti stay, live, work, etc)
Sifat kejadian: long term
Contoh kalimat:
Lia has stayed in Pare for years.
Pola: S + is/am/are + V-ing
Time signal: specific time signal (melibatkan semua verb, kecuali non progressive verb)
Sifat kejadian: very short term
Contoh kalimat:
Lia is staying in Pare now.
Pola: S + have/has + been + V-ing
Time signal: Time duration (melibatkan semua verb kecuali non progressive verb)
Sifat kejadian: short term.
Contoh kalimat:
Lia has been staying in Pare for one month.

***
3. PAST PERFECT
Sumber Gambar dari Sini

Verbal Form:
(+) S + had + V3
(-) S + had + not + V3
(?) had + S + V3 ?

Nominal Form:
(+) S + had + been + subjective complement
(-) S + had + not + been + subjective complement
(?) Had + S + been + subjective complement?

Time Signal:
- Time clause (dua kejadian). Conjunction menggunakan “after”, “before”, “as soon as”, etc.
- Past time (three month ago, in 2000, etc)

Function:
- Menyatakan kejadian yang sudah selesai di waktu lampau.
Contoh: I arrived after he had washed his car.
- Menyatakan kejadian yang masih berlangsung di waktu lampau. Cirinya, terdapat time duration (for)
Contoh: Seven years ago, he had worked in new York for 3 years.
Contoh lain: In 2000, I had studied in Pare for 3 years.

4. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
Verbal Form:
(+) S + had + been + V-ing
(-) S + had + not + been + V-ing
(?) had + S + been + V-ing ?

Nominal Form: Tidak ada bentuk nominalnya.

Time signal:
- Time clause/Past Time (when, after, before, as soon as)
- Time duration (for)

Function:
Menyatakan kejadian yang masih berlangsung di waktu lampau.
Contoh: My Father had been sleeping for an hour when someone knocked the door.

***

5. FUTURE PERFECT
Sumber Gambar dari Sini

Verbal Form:
(+) S + will/shall + have + V3
(-) S + will/shall + not + have + V3
(?) Will/shall + S + have + V3 … ?

Nominal Form:
(+) S + will/shall + have + been + subjective complement
(-) S + will/shall + not + have + been + subjective complement
(?) Will/shall + S + have + been + subjective complement ?

Time Signal:
- by + (time) artinya “menjelang …”. Contoh: by tomorrow, by next week, etc.
- by the end of + (time) artinya “menjelang akhir …”. Contoh: by the end of this year.
- Ar the end of + (time) artinya “menjelang akhir …”. Contoh: at the end of next month.
- by the time (conj) artinya “ketika”. Contoh: by the time your father comes (waktu ketika bapak kamu datang).

Function:
- Menyatakan kejadian yang sudah selesai di waktu yang akan datang. Contoh:
He will have arrived here by next week.
Pipik will have studied English by the end of this month.
- Menyatakan kejadian yang masih berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang. Cirinya, terdapat time duration “for” Contoh:
By the end of this month, he will have worked in New York fot 3 years.
By the end of this week, Pipik will have studied English for 3 years.

***

6. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS
Verbal Form:
(+) S + will/shall + have + been + V-ing
(-) S + will/shall + not + have + been + V-ing
(?) Will/shall + S + have + been + V-ing ?

Nominal Form: Tidak ada bentuk nominalnya.

Time Signal:
- by + (time) … for …
- by the end of + (time) … for …
- At the end of + (time) … for …

Function:
Menyatakan kejadian yang masih berlangsung in the future (short term). Contoh:
He will have been sleeping for an hour by this afternoon.

Note: Untuk melihat STEP BY STEP ENGLISH secara keseluruhan, Sumber Referensi dan Prolog, KLIK DI SINI



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