Chapter 18: PASSIVE VOICE

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Passive Voice adalah bentuk kata kerja yang mengindikasikan subyek melakukan atau dikenai pekerjaan. Perhatikan tabel berikut:


Active Voice
Passive Voice
Pola
S + V
S + be + V3 + by Agent
Subyek
Pelaku (melakukan pekerjaan)
Penderita (dikenai pekerjaan)
Makna
Me … / Ber …
Di … / Ter …
Kalimat
Semua jenis kalimat
Verbal sentence (transitive verb)
Tenses
16 tenses (8 non continuous dan 8 continuous)
10 Tenses (8 non continuous dan 2 continuous)
Contoh
Betty membunuh seekor semut.
à Betty kills an ant.
Semut dibunuh oleh Betty. à An ant is killed by Betty.

Another Examples:
1. Simple Present: My car is cleaned.
2. Present Continuous: My car is being cleaned.
3. Present Perfect: My car has been cleaned.
4. Simple Past: My car was cleaned.
5. Past Continuous: My car was being cleaned.
6. Past Perfect: My car had been cleaned.
7. Simple Future: My car will be cleaned.
8. Future Perfect: My car will have been cleaned.
9. Simple Past Future: My car would be cleaned.
10. Past Future Perfect: My car would have been cleaned.

RUMUS TENSES PASSIVE VOICE
Event/Time
Simple
Continuous
Perfect
Perfect Continuous
Present
S + is/am/are + V3
S + is/am/are + being + V3
S + have/has + been + V3
-
Past
S + was/were + V3
S + was/were + being + V3
S + had + been + V3
-
Future
S + will/shall + be + V3
-
S + will/shall + have + been + V3
-
Past Future
S + would/should + be + V3
-
S + would/should + have + been + V3
-

SYARAT PASSIVE VOICE
1. Kalimat verbal
2. Kalimat menggunakan verb transitive
Contoh: Jim has called them à They have been called by Jim.
Perhatikan uraiannya di bawah ini:
Jim
Has called
them
à
They
Have been called
By Jim
Subject
Verb Transitive

object

Subject
Verb transitive (be + V3)
By agent

CARA MENGUBAH KALIMAT AKTIF MENJADI BENTUK PASIF
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1. Tentukan bahwa verb-nya berupa Verb Transitif
2. Batasi subyek, verb, adverb dan obyek pada kalimat active voice.
Example: Alex menulis sebuah buku setiap hari. à Alex writes a book everyday.
(Alex sebagai Subject, Writes sebagai verb, a book sebagai object dan everyday sebagai Adverb)
3. Jadikan obyek kalimat aktif menjadi subyek kalimat pasif dan subyek aktif menjadi “by agent”.
Example: Sebuah buku ditulis Alex setiap hari. à A book is written by Alex everyday.
(A book sebagai Subject, is written sebagai verb, By Alex sebagai By Agent dan everyday sebagai Adverb).

NOTICE!
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1. Penulisan “by agent”
a. By agent ditulis bila dianggap penting dalam menambah informasi.
Contoh:
Active: Indie bought my cycle yesterday.
Passive: My cycle was bought by Indie Yesterday.

b. By agent tidak ditulis jika subyeknya tidak jelas (indefinite pronoun: somebody, someone, everybody, everyone, anybody, etc.)
Contoh:
Active: Someone is knocking the door.
Passive: The door is being knocked.

c. By agent tidak ditulis jika profesinya sudah diidentifikasi.
Contoh:
Active: The teacher has just taught English.
Passive: English has been just taught.

d. By agent tidak ditulis jika pelakunya sudah diketahui atau tidak diketahui banyak orang.
Contoh:
Active: Goovernment built Monas in Jakarta.
Passive: Monas was built in Jakarta.

2. Kalimat yang tidak bisa dipasifkan
a. Nominal sentence
Contoh: They are smart students (tidak bisa dipasifkan)

b. Intransitive Verb
Contoh: He always swims in the river on saturday.

c. Certain transitive verbs (verb trensitif tertentu) di antaranya:
- Lack (kekurangan). Contoh: The flowers lacks water.
- Suit (cocok/sesuai dengan warna). Contoh: The colour doesn’t suit you.
- Resemble (mirip). Contoh: She resembles her mother.
- have (mempunyai). Contoh: I have a new car. (tidak bisa menjadi: A new car is had by me)
Jika ingin dipasifkan, maka menjadi: A new car belong to me (strukturnya active namun maknanya pasif)

d. Verb yang memiliki cognate object (obyek yang merupakan turunan/sudah berpasangan dengan verb).
Verb
Cognate Object
Adverb
Makna
Sleep
A sound sleep
Soundly
Tidur nyenyak
Dream
Strange dream
Strangely
Mimpi aneh
Live
A good life
Well
Hidup tenteram
Run
A race
Fast
Lari terbirit
Laugh
A bitter laugh
Bitterly
Terbahak-bahak

Contoh:
The baby sleeps a sound sleep. (active)
The baby sleeps soundly (Active)
Tidak bisa dipasifkan.
Contoh lain: The printer runs a race / The printer run fast.

VARIASI PASSIVE VOICE
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A. Penggunaan Modal Auxiliary
Form: Modal + be + V3
E.g.
- She could teach you yesterday. (Active Voice) à You could be taught by her yesterday (Passive Voice)
- They must make it. à It must be made by them.
- She can drive a car à A car can be driven by her.

B. Ditransitive Verb
Form:
Indirect Object (IO) + be + V3 + Direct object (DO) + by agent
DO + be + V3 + to/for + IO + by agent
E.g.
Damar membuatkanmu secangkir kopi. à Damar makes you a cup of coffee.
Kamu dibuatkan secangkir kopi oleh Damar à You are made a cup of coffee by Damar.
Secangkir kopi dibuatkan Damar untukmu à A cup of coffee is made for you by Damar.
Another example:
Munir memesan secangkir kopi untukku à Munir orders a cup of coffee for me.
A cup of coffee is ordered by Munir for me.
I am ordered a cup of coffee by Munir.

C. Question
- Yes/No Question
Form: Aux + S + be + V3 + by Agent … ?
E.g.
The children are playing football now (Active voice)
Football is being played by the children now (passive voice)
Is football being played by the children now? (Yes/No Passive)
Another example:
Do you speak English? à Is English spoken by you?
Do you write a book? à is a book written by me?
Do you visit them? à Are they visited by you?
Will he look for a car? à Will a car be looked for by him?
Will she have called him? à Will he have been called by her?
Has he eaten rice? à Has rice eaten by him?

Baca Juga: Penjelasan dan Contoh-Contoh Question Sentence

- Informative Question
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Pola kalimat:
Subject + Verb (be + V3) + by agent + Adverb.
Jika menanyakan “Subject”, maka Question Word yang digunakan adalah:
Who
What
How Many
How Much
Which
Whose
Contoh:
A new car was stolen by my friend.
Jika menanyakan “A”, maka: How many new cars were stolen by my friend?
Jika menanyakan “new”, maka: Which cars were stolen by my friend?
Jika menanyakan “car”, maka: What was stolen by my friend?

Another example:
Two fat cat are bought by Pipik.
Jika menanyakan “Two”, maka: How many cat are bought by Pipik?
Jika menanyakan “fat”, maka: Which cat are bought by Pipik?
Jika menanyakan “cat”, maka: What is bought by Pipik?

Passive juga bisa digunakan untuk mengubah kalimat pertanyaan. Contoh:
- Who calls Pipik? Bisa diganti menjadi: Who is Pipik called by?
- Who looks at Pipik? à Whom is Pipik looked at by?
***
Subject + Verb (be + V3) + by agent + Adverb.
Jika menanyakan Verb, maka Question Word yang dipakai adalah “What” dan langkah-langkah membuat kalimat tanyanya sebagai berikut:
- Hilangkan subyek
- ganti dengan “done”
- Polanya: What + Verb (be) + done + by agent.

Contoh:
Computer is brought by Damar. à What is done by Damar?
A book will be taken by Damar. à What eill be done by Damar?
A cat is looked after by Munir. à What is done by Munir?
A house is built by Pipik. à What is done bu Pipik?

***
Subject + Verb (be + V3) + by agent + Adverb.
Jika menanyakan By agent, maka Question Word yang digunakan adalah:
Whom
What
How Many
How Much
Which
Whose
Polanya:
Question Word (QW) + V aux + S + be + V3 + by?
atau
By + QW + V aux + S + be + V3?

Contoh:
Computer is brought by a handsome boy.
Jika menanyakan “a”, maka: How many handsome boys is computer brought by? atau By how many handsome boys is computer brought?
Jika menanyakan “handsome”, maka: Which boys is computer brought by? atau By which is computer brought?
Jika menanyakan “boy”, maka: Whom is computer brought by? atau By whom is computer brought?

Another example:
A house is built by a great man.
Jika menanyakan “a”, maka: How many great men is a house built by?
Jika menanyakan “great”, maka: Which men is a house built by?
Jika menanyakan “man”, maka: Whom is a house built by?

***
Subject + Verb (be + V3) + by agent + Adverb.
Jika menanyakan Adverb, maka Question Word yang digunakan adalah:
Where
When
Why
How
Polanya: QW + V aux + S + be + V3 + by agent?
Contoh:
English is studied nicely by him at Vegas today because it’s easy.
Jika menanyakan “nicely”, maka: How English is studied by him?
Jika menanyakan “Vegas”, maka: Where English is studied by him?
Jika menanyakan “Today”, maka: When English is studied by him?
Jika menanyakan “because it’s easy”, maka: Why English is studied nicely by him?

STATIVE PASSIVE
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Adalah bentuk kalimat yang menggunakan pola passive (be + V3) tetapi bukan termasuk kalimat pasif. Stative passive bermakna KEADAAN dan termasuk KALIMAT NOMINAL.
CIRI-CIRI:
- Tidak terdapat tindakan
- Tidak terdapat “by agent”
- V3 berfungsi sebagai Adjective
E.g.
Active
Passive
Stative
Sam locks the door.
The door is locked by Sam
Now, the door is locked.
Jane broke the tables.
The table were broken by Jane
Then, the table were broken.
Those students surprised a teacher.
The teacher was surprised by those students.
Then, the teacher was surprised.



This is the end of Chapter 18
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