Chapter 19: ELLIPTICAL STRUCTURE

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Adalah pemendekan kalimat dengan MENGHILANGKAN BAGIAN YANG SAMA menggunakan adverb dan conjunction tertentu dengan aturan tertentu pula.

1. ADVERB
A. Positive (+)
Adverb:
so … / … too.
Form:
Statement, and + so + auxiliary + Subject
atau
Statement, and + Subject + auxiliary + too
Contoh:
Roy is studying English. I am studying English à
Roy is studying English, and so am I
Roy is studying English, and I am too.
B. Negative (-)
Adverb:
Neither … / … Either
Form:
Statement, and + neither + auxiliary + Subject
atau
Statement, and + Subject + auxiliary + not + either
Contoh:
I haven’t slept. He hasn’t slept. à
I havent’t slept, and neither has he.
I haven’t slept, and he hasn’t either.

NOTICE:
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- Pemendekan dengan menggunakan adverb hanya bisa dilakukan ketika subyek berbeda.
- Auxiliary mengikuti bentuk dan tenses statement. Contoh:
I am an author, so is my mother.
- Menggunakan auxiliary yang pertama. Contoh:
Bob will have been in Mexico. Sarah will have been in Mexico. à
Bob will have been in Mexico and so will Sarah.

***
2. CONJUNCTION
Jenisnya:
a. Dua Poin Tercapai
b. Dua Poin Tidak Tercapai
c. Satu Poin Tercapai
d. Bertentangan

Mari kita simak uraiannya satu per satu.
a. Dua Poin Tercapai
Conjunction:
(… and …)
(Not only … but also …)
Contoh:
- Menghubungkan Subyek -
She is going to school. I am going to school. à
She and I are going to school (plural verb)
Both she and I are going to school (plural verb)
Not only she, but also I am going to school (the last subject verb)
- Menghubungkan Verb –
John has a new book. John reads a new book. à
John has and reads a new book.
John both has and reads a new book.
John not only has but also reads a new book.
- Menghubungkan Obyek –
I enjoy watching Harry Potter. I enjoy watching Jumanji. à
I enjoy watching Harry Potter and Jumanji.
I enjoy watching both Harry Potter and Jumanji.
I enjoy watching not only Harry Potter but also Jumanji.

b. Dua Poin Tidak Tercapai
Conjunction:
neither … nor … (baik … maupun …)
Contoh:
- Menghubungkan Subyek –
Ron doesn’t buy acycle. Frank doesn’t buy a cycle. à
Neither Ron nor Frank buys a cycle. (the last subject verb)
- Menghubungkan Verb –
Sarah won’t forgive you. Sarah won’t visit you. à
Sarah will neither forgive nor visit you.
*won’t adalah singkatan dari “will not”
- Menghubungkan Object –
Oni doesn’t like loving. Oni doesn’t like being loved. à
One likes neiter loving nor being loved.

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c. Satu Poin Tercapai
Conjunction:
either … or … (jika bukan …, berarti …)
Contoh:
- Menghubungkan Subyek –
You were doing the homework. She was doing the homework. à
Either you or she was doing the homework (the last subject verb)
- Menghubungkan Verb –
They are sleeping. They are swimming. à
They are either sleeping or swimming.
- Menghubungkan Object –
Sam studies English. Sam studies Arabic. à
Sam studies either English or Arabic.

d. Bertentangan
Conjunction: … but …
Contoh:
- Menghubungkan Subject –
I can speak English. He can’t speak English. à
I can speak English but he can’t.
- Menghubungkan Verb –
I am not singing. I am reading. à
I am not singing but reading.
- Menghubungkan Object –
My father doesn’t drive a truck. My father drives a bus. à
My father doesn’t drive a truck, but a bus.
- Menghubungkan Adjective –
She is beautiful. She is poor. à
She is beautiful but arrogant.

This is the end of Chapter 19

Note: Untuk melihat STEP BY STEP ENGLISH secara keseluruhan, Sumber Referensi dan Prolog, KLIK DI SINI

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