CHAPTER 22: MODAL

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Modal yang saya maksud di sini bukanlah sejumlah uang yang kita butuhkan untuk memulai usaha. Kalau modal dengan makna begitu, dalam bahasa Inggris disebut “capital”. Modal yang akan kita bicarakan di sini adalah semuah kata kerja bantu yang MENAMBAHKAN MAKNA pada verb ordinary-nya. (Penjelasan tentang Verb Ordinary, klik DI SINI).
Contoh: Nita can drive a car well.
Kalau kata bapak saya, “modal” itu berasal dari kata “mood” atau suasana hati. Makanya modal memang suatu alat menambahkan makna yang melibatkan keinginan, kebisaan, keharusan dan lainnya.

JENIS-JENIS MODAL:
Modal Murni à
Similar Expression of Modal (SEOM) dan Maknanya
Will à
Be (is, am, are) going to (akan)
Would à
Used to (dulu terbiasa)
Shall à
Be (is, am, are) going to (akan)
Should
Be supposed to (seharusnya)
May à
Be allowed to (boleh)
Might à
Past simple of “may”
Must à
Have to / have got to / be to (harus)
Ought to à
Kemungkinan / prediksi
Can à
Be able to (bisa, dapat, mampu)
Could à
Past simple of “can”
Had better à
Lebih baik
Would rather à
Lebih memilih
Need à
Butuh
Dare à
Berani

PERATURAN MODAL
1. Bentuk modal SELALU TETAP meskipun bertemu kata ganti orang ketiga (she, he, it). Contoh:
She can speak atau she must be able to speak Rnglish.
2. Modal selalu bertemu V1, tidak boleh bertemu is, am dan are.
Sumber Gambar dari Sini

3. Modal tidak boleh bertemu modal murni lain. Solusinya, modal kedua diganti dengan SEOM.
4. Modal tidak boleh diikuti dan diawali dengan to infinitive. Contoh:
I must to come here (salah) à I must come here. (benar)
5. Modal tidak boleh masuk ke dalam tenses perfect kecuali: will, would, shall, should.
6. Modal tidak boleh bertemu denan Primary Auxiliary kecuali be dan have. Contoh:
She can be here.
7. Bila modal sendirian, boleh diganti dengan SEOM. Contoh:
She can visit me. à She is able to visit me.

FUNGSI SEOM
Sumber Gambar dari Sini

1. Menggantikan modal murni bila sendirian. Contoh:
She is ableto come here. = She can come here.
2. Menggantikan modal murni bila bertemu modal murni. Contoh:
She must be able to come here.
3. SEOM boleh diawali atau diikuti to infinitive. Contoh:
She want to be able to speak English.
4. SEOM dapat masuk ke dalam tenses perfect. Contoh:
She has been able to speak English.
5. SEOM bisa masuk ke dalam semua tenses, kecuali “used to”. Contoh:
She is able to be coming here.
6. SEOM dapat bertemu dengan SEOM lainnya. Contoh:
She has to be able to come here. (She must to come here)

PEMBAGIAN MODAL

A. Berdasarkan Tenses
Terbagi menjadi dua kelompok, yakni real perfect dan unreal perfect. Untuk penjelasannya, simak tabel berikut ini.
Real Perfect
Unreal Perfect
Yakni ketika modal berada dalam struktur perfect (have + V3) dan makna perfect (sudah).

Anggota: Modal yang bermakna “akan” (will, would, shall, should)

Contoh:
By tomorrow, I will have done my homework.
Yakni ketika modal dalam struktur perfect (have + V3) dan makna past (lampau).

Anggota: Modal yang selain bermakna “akan”

Contoh:
- Ugho looks tired. She may have stayed up last night.
- Munir looks sleepy now, he may have stayed up last night.

Sumber Gambar dari Sini

Tenses untuk UNREAL PERFECT terdiri dari 6 tenses dan 4 bentuk:
Tenses
Bentuk
Examples
Simple present
S + Modal + Vbi
- She may come here.
- She may be coming here.
- She may have been come here.
She may have been coming here.
- she may have gone to market.
- She must have called me last night.
- They cry today. They must have listened bad news yesterday.
Simple future
Present continuous
S+ Modal + be + V-ing
Future continuous
Simple past
S + Modal + have + V3
Past continuous
S + Modal + have + been + V-ing

B. Berdasarkan Makna
Sumber Gambar dari Sini

 Terbagi juga menjadi dua kelompok, yakni Conclution Meaning dan Spontaneity Meaning. Mari simak penjelasan generalnya dalam tabel di bawah ini:
Conclution Meaning
Spontaneity Meaning
- Menarik kesimpulan
- terdapat prolog
- Pola: be + V-ing (ketika continuous)
- Terdiri dari 6 tenses dan 4 bentuk
- Modal terdiri dari 2, yakni possibility (1) dan impossibility (2).
*Pembahasan lebih lanjut tersedia di bawah.
- tidak menarik kesimpulan
- tidak terdapat prolog
- tidak berpola be + V-ing (ketika continuous)
- Terdiri dari 6 tenses dan 2 bentuk
- Modal terdiri dari: wishes (3), ability (4), necessity (5), prohibition (6), advisability (7), suggestion (8), permission (9), expectation (10), habit in past (11), request (12), preference (13), semi modal (14).
*Pembahasan lebih lanjut tersedia di bawah.

*MORE EXPLANATION
CONCLUTION MEANING
1. POSSIBILITY (KEMUNGKINAN)
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- Modal yang menyatakan kemungkinan
- Makna: conclusion meaning (untuk menarik kesimpulan)
- Syarat: ada prolog
- Pola: be + V-ing (ketika continuous)
Tenses: 6 tenses dan 4 bentuk:
Tenses
Bentuk
Simple present
S + Modal + Vbi
Simple future
Present continuous
S+ Modal + be + V-ing
Future continuous
Simple past
S + Modal + have + V3
Past continuous
S + Modal + have + been + V-ing

Modal yang digunakan:
(Pasti) à
Will
Must
(Mungkin) à
May
Might
Can
Could
Should
Ought to
Contoh: Munir is getting sick. He could fall in love (mungkin)
Another Example:
Fitri is crying. She may be losing her candy.
I saw John in the hospital yesterday. He should have been sick.

Note:
a. WILL dalam british English dipakai untuk tenses Simple present (continuous), simple past (continuous) dan simple future (continuous). Sementara WILL dalam American English didpakai untuk tenses Simple Future dan Future Continuous.
b. Persamaan Makna: Maybe = Probably + Perhaps (adverb)
c. Possible (Adjective) à I’m sure that she is tired. She must forget Pipik à I’m sure that she forgets Pipik.
d. Jika tensesnya “past”, maka bentuknya harus Perfect. Contoh:
Munir is sleepy. He must have eaten too much.
e. Bedakanlah “Maybe” sebagai Adverb (Maybe she is tired) dan “May” sebagai modal/verb (she may be tired).

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2. IMPOSSIBILITY (KETIDAKMUNGKINAN)
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Makna: conclution meaning, syarat ada prolog.
Pola: be + V-ing (ketika continuous)
Kalimat: bentuk negative (-) dan interrogative (?)
Persamaan Makna:
- Impossible (Adj)
- Maybe, Probably, Perhaps … not (adv)
- Sure … not (adj)
Tenses: 6 tenses dan 4 bentuk (sama dengan possibility)
Modal:
(Tidak Mungkin) à
can not
could not
(Mungkin Tidak) à
may not
might not
(pasti tidak) à
must not. Contoh: She must not come on time. I’m sure she doesn’t come on time.

Another Example:
Pipik gets up late. She may not come on time.
Maybe she doesn’t come on time.
it’s impossible that Pipik comes on time.

He always goes to school on foot.
He may not have any cycles.
Perhaps she doesn’t any cycle.

Gred has got an accident.
He must not go to work.
I’m sure that he doesn’t go to work.

Pipik is in Jakarta now.
She may not have attend your party last night.

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3. WISHES (HARAPAN)
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Pola: tidak berpola be + V-ing ketika continuous.
Modal: May
Kalimat: positive (+) dan negative (-), tidak boleh interrogative (?)
Tenses:
Simple Present (Continuous)
Simple Future (Continuous)
Bentuk:
Modal + Subject + Vbi! (+)
Modal + Subject + not + Vbi! (-)
Contoh:
May you attend in my party. (Kuharap kamu bisa hadir di pestaku)
May we be happy! (semoga kita bahagia)
May he not be naughty! (semoga dia tidak nakal)
Notice:
Modal atau Modal + Subject kadang bisa dihilangkan (showing expression). Contoh:
May God be with you! à God be with you!
May you have a nice dream! à Have a nice dream!

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4. ABILITY (KEMAMPUAN)
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Pola: tidak berpola be + V-ing ketika continuous.
Modal:
Can (simple present)
Could (simple past)
be able to (SEOM)
Kalimat: positive (+), negative (-), interrogative (?) dan negative interrogative (-?)
Tenses: 6 tenses dan 2 bentuk:
- Simple Present (continuous), Simple Future (Continuous) à S + can + Vbi
- Simple Past (continuous) à S + could + Vbi
Contoh:
Susi can sing beautifully.
Sam is able to drive a car fast.
Pipik can write a novel.
Ten years ago, Pipik could write a novel.
Note:
- Modal “Ability” ketika simple past tidak lagi menggunakan pola perfect, karena dia memiliki bentuk V2. Hanya “can” yang bernakna “bisa”.
- SEOM be able to bisa berubah sesuai tenses. Contoh:
Pipik is able to help me
Pipik has able to help me
- Simple Past (Continuous) dan perbedaan “could” dengan “was/were able to”:
COULD (kemampuan asli, bisa terjadi, habitual action in the past). Contoh:
Pipik could meet me yesterday.
WAS/WERE ABLE TO (kemampuan yang bersifat kebetulan terjadi satu kali pada masa lampau). Contoh:
Pipik was able to meet Jokowi.

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5. NECESSITY (KEHARUSAN)
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Pola: tidak berpola “be + V-ing” ketika continuous.
Kalimat: (+), (-), (?), (-?)
Modal:
Modal murni menggunakan Must untuk kalimat positif dan Needn’t untuk kalimat negatif.
SEOM menggunakan Have To, Have Got To dan Be To
Tenses:
Simple Present (Continuous) dan Simple Future (Continuous)
Simple Past (Continuous)
Example
(+) S + Must + Vbi
(+) S + had to + Vbi
- Pipik must wash my car.
- Pipik had to help her mother.
(-) S + needn’t + Vbi
(-)S + hadn’t to + Vbi/
S + didn’t have to + Vbi
-Pipik needn’t wash my car.
- Pipik hadn’t to help her mother.
(?) Must + S + Vbi?
(?) Had + S + to Vbi?
- Must Pipik wash my car?
- Had Pipik to help her mother?
(-?) Needn’t + S + Vbi?
(-?) Didn’t + S + have to + Vbi?
- Needn’t Pipik wash my car?
- Didn’t Pipik have to help her mother?

Catatan:
Perbedaan Must, Have To dan Have Got To
Must dan Have To (American)
Must dan Have To (British)
Have dan Got To (Informal)
Must (strong obligation), jika tidak dilakukan akan ada akibatnya, sifatnya wajib
Must (internal speaker/keharusan untuk diri sendiri)
Have got to à have gotta
Have to (weak obligation), jika tidak dilakukan tidak mengapa atau shunnah.
Have to (eksternal speaker/keharusan untuk orang lain)
Have to à hafta
Has to à hasta

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6. PROHIBITION (LARANGAN)
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Pola: Tidak berpola “be + V3” ketika continuous.
Kalimat: Negative (-)
Modal: Musn’t (tidak boleh) setara makna dengan Don’t + Vbi (Kalimat Imperative)
Tenses:
Simple Present (Continuous) dan Simple Future (Continuous)
Simple Past (Continuous)
(-) S + Musn’t + Vbi à Today, you musn’t come here.
(-)S + Musn’t + have + V3 à Yesterday, you mustn’t have drunk coffee.

Catatan:
Imperative hanya digunakan pada tenses present. Contoh:
The kids must not play in the rain (hujan-hujanan)
Setara makna dengan: Don’t play in the rain!

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7. ADVISABILITY (NASIHAT)
Sumber Gambar dari Sini

Pola: tidak menggunakan “be + V-ing” ketika Continuous.
Kalimat: (+), (-), (?), (-?)
Modal:
Modal murni menggunakan Should (formal), Ought To (informal), Had Better (artinya: seharusnya lebih baik/sebaiknya. Ini adalah nasihat tanpa ancaman, di mana tidak ada akibat buruk bila tidak dikerjakan)
SEOM menggunakan Be Supposed To
Tenses:
Simple Present (Continuous) dan Simple Future (Continuous)
Simple Past (Continuous)
Simple Present (Continuous) dan Simple Future (Continuous)
(+) S + Should/Ought To + Vbi
(+) S + Should/Ought To + have + V3
(+) S + had better + Vbi
(-) S + Should/Ought To + not + Vbi
(-) S + Should/Ought To + not + have + V3
(-) S + had better + not + Vbi
(-) S + hadn’t better + Vbi
(?)Should/Ought To + S + Vbi
(?)Should + S + have + V3?
(?)Ought To + S + to?
(?) Had better + S + Vbi?
Sifat: Solusi/nasihat tanpa ancaman
Sifat: Ada unsur penyesalan karena sudah berlalu
Sifat: Nasihat disertai ancaman
Contoh:
You should study hard.
You should call me.
You should inform me.
Fred should say honestly.
Contoh:
You should picked Father up yesterday.
You shouldn’t have left your son alone yesterday.
Contoh:
You had better write.
You had better see the doctor or you will die.

***
8. SUGGESTION (SARAN)
Sumber Gambar dari Sini

Pola: tidak menggunakan “be + V-ing” ketika Continuous.
Kalimat: (+), (-), (?), (-?)
Modal: Could (artinya: Seharusnya, Lebih Baik. Ini merupakan bentuk nasihat disertai solusi)
Tenses:
Simple Present (Continuous) dan Simple Future (Continuous)
Simple Past (Continuous)
(+) S + Could + Vbi
(+) S + Could + have + V3
(-) S + Could + not + Vbi
(-) S + Could + not + have + V3
(?) Could + S + Vbi
(?) Could + S + have + V3?
Sifat: Solusi/nasihat tanpa ancaman
Sifat: Ada unsur penyesalan karena sudah berlalu

Contoh:
- Sam could call me or send me a message.
- You could see the doctor or buy medicine.
- You could apply for job or ask someone to help you.
- You could have helped him or asked someone else to help him.

***
9. EXPECTATION (PENGHARAPAN/PERKIRAAN)
Sumber Gambar dari Sini

Pola: be + V-ing (ketika continuous)
Kalimat: (+), (-), (-?), (?)
Modal:
Tidak ada modal murni.
SEOM menggunakan be to (setara Must) dan be supposed to (setara should)
Catatan:
Perihal “be to” dan “to infinitive”:
- To infinitive bisa di-interchangeable (dibolak-balik) dan subject tidak bisa melakukan kata kerjanya (Veb)
- Be to tidak bisa dibolak balik dan subyek bisa melakukan kata kerjanya.
Contoh:
Pipik is to help someone (tidak bisa dibalik)
Pipik’s activity is to help someone (bisa dibalim menjadi: To help someone is Pipik’s activity)

Ragam Makna “Be To”
a. Diharapkan
Persamaan maknanya dengan “be required to” dan “Be expected to”. Contoh:
Pipik diharapkan membeli mobil à Pipik is to buy a car à Pipik is required to buy a car.
b. Berharap
Persamaan makna dengan “Hope to”. Contoh:
Pipik berharap pergi ke London à Pipik is to go to London à Pipik hopes to go to London.
c. Ditakdirkan
Persamaan maknanya dengan “be destined to”. Contoh:
Pipik ditakdirkan menjadi seorang menteri à Pipik is to be a ministry à Pipik is destined to be a minister.
d. Dijadwalkan (formal)
Contoh: The train is to arrive at 07.00 a.m.

Ragam Makna “Be Supposed To”:
1. Diharapkan
Persamaan maknanya dengan “be required to” dan “be expected to”
Contoh: Pipik is supposed to build white house.
2. Dipercaya
Persamaan maknanya dengan “it’s believed that”. Contoh:
A crocodile is supposed to be a funny animal à A crocodile is believed that to be a funny animal
3. Dijadwalkan (Informal)
Contoh: Pipik is supposed to arrive at 07.00 a.m.

***
10. HABIT IN PAST (KEBIASAAN DI MASA LALU)
Sumber Gambar dari Sini

Kalimat: spontaneity meaning (+, -, ?, -?)
Modal:
Modal murni (would) dan SEOM (used to) artinya “dulu terbiasa”
Tenses:
Ada 2 tenses dan 1 bentuk:
- Simple present (continuous), simple future (continuous)
- Simple Past (Continuous) à would/used to + Vbi
Contoh:
She would water the flower on sunday last year.
I used to cry when she left.
Catatan:
- be used to + V-ing à I was used to carving some word on the wood.
- Be accustomed + V-ing à I was accustomed to carving some word on the wood.
Another example:
He was used to being the best student. (habit in the past)
He is used to being the best student. (habit in the present)

***
11. PREFERENCE (KESUKAAN)
Sumber Gambar dari Sini

Pola: Bisa berpola be + V-ing ketika continuous.
Modal: Would rather … than … (lebih suka … dari pada …)
Tenses:
Empat bentuk dan 6 tenses:
- Simple Present dan Simple Perfect à S + Would rather + Vbi + than + Vbi
- Present continuous dan Future Continuous à S + Would rather + be + V-ing + than + V-ing
- Simple Past à S + would rather + have + V3 + than + V3
- Past continuous à S + would rather + have + been + V-ing + than + V-ing.
Contoh:
Cathrine would rather eat banana than (eat) jackfruit.
I would rather be studying than watching TV now.
Lee would rather have visited Jogja than Bali last month.
Pipik would rather go shopping than stay at home. (simple present)
Pipik would rather be going to shopping than staying at home.
Pipik would rather have gone to shopping than stayed at home.
Pipik would rather have been going to shopping than staying at home.
Catatan:
Variasi Preference:
a. S + like + O (noun/gerund) + than + O (noun/gerund)
Tim likes drinking than eating.
Tim likes Garra than sasuke.
b. S + prefer + O (noun/to infinitive) + rather than + O (noun/to infinitive)
Sonia prefers to write book rather than to listen music.
Tom prefers to fish rather than to swim.
c. S + prefer + O (noun/gerund) + to + O (noun/gerund)
Indah prefers studying to playing.
Tom prefers fishing to swimming.

***
12. REQUEST (PERMINTAAN)
Sumber Gambar dari Sini

Kalimat: interrogative (?) à Untuk meminta izin atau persetujuan.
Modal:
May
Might
Could (formal)
Can (informal)
Tenses:
Simple Present (Continuous) dan Simple Future (Continuous).
(Subject-nya I dan We)
Contoh:
May I come to your house tomorrow?
Can I taste your cake? (informal)
May I speak in front of you?
Can I bring your bicycle?
(Subject-nya You) artinya: Maukah/Sudikah
Menggunakan Will, Would, Could (formal) dan Can (informal)
Can you pare this apple for me?
Catatan:
Variasi Request à
a. Would you like + to infinitive … ? (Maukah …?)
Would you like to turn down your music?
Would you like to call your mother?
b. Would you mind + V-ing … ? (Keberatankah …?)
Would you mind if I turned down your music?
Would you mind if I borrowed your marker?

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13. PERMISSION (PERIZINAN)
Sumber Gambar dari Sini

Kalimat: (+) dan (-)
Modal:
Modal murni: may dan can
SEOM: be allowed to
Tenses: Simple Present (Continuous) à S + may/can + Vbi dan Simple Future Continuous à menggunakan SEOM
Contoh:
- I wasn’t allowed to hang out.
- Everyone may borrow a book in the library.
- Two days ago, you wewen’t allowed to walk alone.
- Indah may runs fast on the yard.
Catatan:
Perbedaan “May” dan “Can” dalam Permission
May
Can
Perbuatan diperbolehkan
Perbuatan diperbolehkan
Peraturan memperbolehkan
Peraturan tidak memperbolehkan, kecuali darurat
Contoh: you may park your cycle in front of office.
Contoh: you can park your cycle in the office because parking area is full.

Perbedaan “May Not” dan “Must Not” (tidak boleh)
May Not
Must Not
Weak prohibition
Strong prohibition
Contoh: Everybody may not smoke in my room.
Contoh: Everybody must not smoke in gas station

14. SEMI MODAL
Sumber Gambar dari Sini

Karena maknanya bercabang. Ada dua jenis semi modal, yakni NEED dan DARE.
Need (Butuh)
Dare (Berani)
Ordinary (Butuh/Membutuhkan). Contoh:
I need money.
Ordinary (berani/menantang). Contoh:
I dare you. (saya menantang kamu)
Noun (Kebutuhan). Contoh:
I know your need.
Noun (tantangan). Contoh:
I receive/accept your dare.
Modal (-) needn’t= tidak butuh/tidak perlu. Contoh:
I needn’t come to your house.
Modal (berani). Contoh:
I dare go to jungle.

This is the end of Chapter 22



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