CHAPTER 5: THE PART OF SPEECH - NOUN

Mind Mapping Noun

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THE PICTURE ABOVE IS MIND MAPPING OF NOUN. LET'S FOLLOW THE SHORT EXPLANATION AND SUMMARY BELOW (WITH MORE EXAMPLES) 
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NOUN

***BERDASARKAN WUJUD***
Terbagi menjadi dua bagian:
- Concrete noun (table, desk, bed, door, etc)
- Abstract noun (air, wind, feel)

***BERDASARKAN PENAMAAN***
- Common noun (transportation, girl, course, book)
- Proper noun (Bus, Fatimah, Seventeen Course, Math Book)
- Collective noun (team, family, government, community)
- Material noun (sand, dust, air, water, fire, wood, stone, flower)

***BERDASARKAN JUMLAH***
- Noun Uncountable (Todak Bisa Dihitung)
[Whole Group] Furniture, fruit, food, jewelry, scenery etc
[Fluid] water, oil, tea, coffee etc
[Gasses] air, steam, smoke, oxygen
[Particles] rice, corn, salt, sugar, sand
[Solids] Cheese, bread, meat
[Language] Indonesia, English, Arabic, Japanesse
[Academic Subjects] Mathemathic, psychology, chemistry etc
[Recreation] soccer, tennis, basket ball, badminton
[Activities] Swimming, Fishing, Diving
[Natural phenomena] rain, thunder, drizzle, fog 
[Abstractions] Advice, homework, information

HITUNGAN NOUN UNCOUNTABLE
Sumber Gambar dari sini

a. Noun uncountable TIDAK MEMILIKI BENTUK PLURAL dan SELALU DIANGGAP SINGULAR.
Contoh: Much water is clean.
b. Untuk menghitung uncountable noun, dibutuhkan PARTITIVE atau TAKARAN.
Contoh: a slice of bread, a piece of cheese, a cup of coffee, a sponfull of sugar.
c. Uncountable noun BISA MENJADI COUNTABLE jika yang dimaksud adalah jenis atau tipe dari noun tersebut.
Contoh: The waters on the table are lake water and sea water.
d. Noun yang bisa menjadi countable atau uncountable SESUAI KONTEKS
Contoh: He has a brown hair (uncountable)
You got a hair on your shoulder (countable)

- Noun Countable (Dapat Dihitung)
[Regular noun - Jamaknya noun + s/es] Book – Books, Table – Tables, Pen – Pens etc
[Iregular noun - Jamaknya tidak tentu] child – children, mouse – mice, louse – lice, person – people

PERATURAN PENJAMAKAN Untuk Regular noun:
- Aturan Penambahan –s/-es:
[Noun berakhiran –s, -sh, -ch, -x dan –z ditambah -es] Contoh:
class – classes
bench – benches
brush – brushes
box – boxes
buzz – buzzes
hero – heroes
[Noun yang berakhiran –o + es] Contoh:
Hero – heroes
potato – potatoes
tomato – tomatoes
echo – echoes
[Noun yang berakhiran –o + s] Contoh:
video – videos
photo – photos
radio – radios
bamboo – bamboos
studio – studios
folio – folios
piano – pianos
dynamo – dynamos
tattoo – tattoos
zoo – zoos
solo – solos
soprano – sopranos
canto – cantos
auto – autos
memo – memos
kangaroo – kangaroos
ghetto – ghettos
[Noun yang berakhiran –o + s/es]
zero – zeros/zeroes
mosquito – mosquitos/mosquitoes
tornado – tornados/tornados
volcano – volcanos – volcanoes
momento – momentos/momentoes
[Noun berakhiran –y didahului konsonan, -y berubah menjadi –i dan ditambah -es] Contoh:
baby – babies
story – stories
city – cities
fly – flies
country – countries
[Noun berakhiran –f/-fe menjadi -ves] Contoh:
leaf – leaves
self – selves
wolf – wolves
calf – calves
half – halves
life – lives
thief – thieves
wife – wives
knife – knives
loaf – loaves
shelf – shelves
scarf – scarves
[Noun berakhiran –f + -s] Contoh:
Roaf – roafs
proof – proofs
chief – chiefs
cliff – cliffs
belief – beliefs
[Selain aturan di atas, penjamakan regular adalah noun + s] Contoh:
Boy – boys
Book – books
Temple – temples
Dog – dogs
Cat – cats

PERATURAN PENJAMAKAN Untuk Irregular noun:
[Mengubah Vowel] Contoh:
man – men
woman – women
foot – feet
tooth – teeth
goose – geese
ox – oxen
mouse – mice
louse – lice
child – children
brother – brother/brethren
[Noun tertentu memiliki bentuk singular-plural yang sama] Contoh:
Series – series
species – species
means – means
offspring – offspring
fish – fish
deer – deer
sheep – sheep
salmon – salmon
swine – swine
shrimp – shrimps (UK)
[Bentuk plural yang diambil dari bahasa asing] Contoh:
oasis – oases
criterian – criteria
phenomenon – phenomena
cactus – cacti/cactuses
fungus – fungi
nucleus – nuclei
stimulus – stimuli
syllabus – syllabi/syllabuses
thesis – theses
bacterium – bacteria
medium – media
memorandum – memoranda
parenthesis – parenthesis
formula – formulae/formulas
vertebra – vertebrae
appendix – appendices/appendixes
analysis – analyses
basis – bases
crisi – crises
hypothesis – hyphotheses
curriculum – curricula
datum – data
Sumber Gambar dari Sini

NOUN YANG SELALU PLURAL
[Two – Part Noun] Contoh:
Trousers, pajamas, shorts, pliers, jeans, glasses, scissors, pants, tweezers, shoes, shocks
Note: untuk menyatakan singular, harus menggunakan “a pair of (noun)”
Contoh: “a pair of shoes is ….” atau “a pair of trousers is ….”
[Other nouns] Contoh:
Police, clothes, greens (vegetables), wood (forest), arms (weapons), goods (wares)

BENTUK PLURAL MAKNA SINGULAR
Contoh:
News, certain, diseases (rabies, diabetes, mumps, measles), certain, games (bowls, dominoes, etc).

***BERDASARKAN GENDER***
[Masculine Gender] Contoh:
Father, uncle, boy, man, male, horse, cock, dog, widower, lion, gentlemen,nephew, etc. (Kata ganti untuk maskulin gender adalah He (singular) dan They dalam bentuk jamak).
[Feminine Gender] Contoh:
Mother, aunt, girl, women, female, mare, hen, bitch, widow, lioness, lady, niece, etc (kata gantinya She dan They).
[Common Gender - umum] Contoh:
Student, teacher, farmer, person, employee (Kata ganti: he, she, it, they)
[Neuter Gender – tidak berjenis kelamin, tidak berjiwa] Contoh:
table, stone, house, grass, etc (kata gantinya it dan they).

FUNCTION OF NOUN
1. Subject of Verb. Contoh:
The cat is sleeping on the mattress.
2. Subjunctive complement. Contoh:
She is a nurse.
3. Object of preposition. Contoh:
Because of traffic jam, I came late.
4. Object of verb. Contoh:
They ate some catfish yesterday.
5. Objective complement. Contoh:
I elected Jokowi a president.
6. Modifier of noun. Contoh:
I want to have a wooden house.
7. Appositive (keterangan tambahan, cirinya diapit koma “,”). Contoh:
Our teacher, Mr. Smith is from London.
8. Vocative (direct address). Contoh:
Where are you going, Ken?
Sumber Gambar dari Sini

This is the end of Chapter 5

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