Chapter 8: Pronoun (Kata Ganti)

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Kinds Of The Part Of Speech:

Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menggantikan noun. Noun yang digantikan disebut “antecadent” atau “reference (rujukan)”
e.g:
Bob bought a new motorcycle yesterday. He rode it this morning.
Keterangan:
“Bob” adalah antecadent dari “He” dan
“a new motorcycle” adalah antecedent dari “it”.

KINDS OF PRONOUN:
1. Personal Pronoun
2. Reflexive Pronoun
3. Reciprocal Pronoun
4. Demonstrative Pronoun
5. Indefinite Pronoun
6. Interrogative Pronoun
7. Relative Pronoun

Mari bahas satu per satu:
1. Personal Pronoun (Kata Ganti Diri)
- The first person à I (singular) dan us (plural)
- The second person à You (singular) dan you (plural)
- The third person à He, she, it (singular) dan They (plural)
Personal (subject)
Personal (object)
Possessive Adjective
Possessive Pronoun
Reflexive Pronoun
I
Me
My + noun
Mine
Myself
You
You
Your + noun
Yours
Yourself/selves
We
Us
Our + noun
Ours
Ourselves
They
Them
Their + noun
Theirs
Themselves
He
Him
His + noun
His
Himself
She
Her
Her + noun
Hers
Herself
It
It
Its + noun
-
Itself
Note: personal pronoun akan berubah sesuai posisinya.
2. Reflexive Pronoun
Adalah kata ganti yang merujuk pada diri sendiri.
Function:
- As emphasize (penekanan) -
Example:
I myself do my homework.
atau
I do my homework myself.
- As object -
Example:
Tommy see himself in the water.
atau
Maria always thinks about herself
- As Adverb –
Example:
She stays at home by herself.
atau
She stays at home alone.
3. Reciprocal Pronoun
adalah kata ganti yang menunjukkan interaksi “saling”.
- “Each Other” digunakan untuk berinteraksi antara dua orang. Contoh: Pipik and Munit love each other.
- “One Another” digunakan untuk berinteraksi lebih dari dua orang. Contoh: The students help one another.

4. Demonstrative Pronoun
adalah kata tunjuk yang difungsikan sekagai KATA GANTI yang menggantikan NOUN. Jenisnya:
Singular: This/That
Plural: These/Those

Note:
Perbedaan demonstrative adjective dan demonstrative pronoun:
Demonstrative Adjective
Demonstrative Pronoun
Menjelaskan noun
Menggantikan noun
Pola: demon Adj + noun
Pola: demon pron + x noun x
e.g: This book is expensive.
e.g. This is expensive.

5. Indefinite Pronoun
Adalah kata ganti untuk noun yang tidak jelas.
Kinds:

-body
-one
-thing
Some
Somebody (seseorang)
Someone (seseorang)
Something (sesuatu)
Every
Everybody (setiap orang)
Everyone (setiap orang)
Everything (segala sesuatu)
Any
Anybody (seorang pun)
Anyone (seorang pun)
Anything (suatu pun)
No
Nobody (tak seorang pun)
Noone (tak seorang pun)
Nothing (tak suatu pun)
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Notes:
- Indefinite person/thing dianggap singular sehingga diikuti singular verb.
Contoh:
Someone is singing.
Nobody is perfect.
Everything is ok
Everybody looks for me. 
- Personal pronoun untuk indefinite person/thing adalah:
a. Indefinite thing (it). Contoh:
Something is happening.
It is an accident.
It is alright.
b. Indefinite person (he/they). Mengapa “he”, sebab laki-laki bisa menggantikan perempuan, sedangkan perempuan tidak bisa menggantikan laki-laki. Contoh:
Somebody left his book (formal).
Somebody left their book (informal).
Everything is alright. à he is alright.
- Indefinite Quantity:
Anggotanya:
All
Both
Some
Several
Much
Many
Little
Few
Erc.
Contoh: I have many books. Some are English book.

6. Interrogative Pronoun
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Yakni kata ganti noun yang juga difungsikan sebagai kata tanya yang menanyakan “noun”.
Jenisnya:
Who
Whom
What
Whose
Which.
Contoh: Diana is reading a book.
a. Jika menanyakan “Diana”: Who is reading a book? (Who berfungsi sebagai question word dan kata ganti untuk Diana).
b. Jika menanyakan “a book”: What is Diana Reading? (What berfungsi sebagai question word dan kata ganti untuk Book).

Another example:
Munir has stayed here.
Who has stayed here?

Munir calls Pipik every night.
Whom does Munir call up every night?

7. Relative Pronoun
Yakni kata ganti noun yang juga difungsikan sebagai conjunction dalam rangkaian kata adj. clause (conjunction ini bermakna “yang”). Anggotanya: Who, Whom, That, Which.
Contoh:
Seorang gadis yang duduk di sana itu temanku.
A girl who sits there is my friend.
Another Example:
A girl whom Munir looks for is Pipik.
A girl who I know is sitting in the office.
A crocodile which is sitting beside Pipik is Munir.
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This is the end of chapter 8

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